Footnote:



HOME PAGE
1.Typical Characteristics & Chronology of Finding In Malacca
2.Is Malacca or Melaka Today ? Which is Which ?
3.Chronology of Malacca Sultanate
4.Portuguese Currency : 1511 - 1641
5.Dutch Currency : 1641 - 1795 and 1818 - 1825
6.When Islamic Influence Found in Malacca..? Where is Malacca in 600 Years ?
7.When Chinese Influence Found in Malacca.. How It Develop ?
8.Footnote
9. Conclusion

Century Currency Show 1 Century Currency Show 2Century Currency Show 3Century Currency Show 4 Century Currency Show 5 Century Currency Show 6 Gallery

The History of Melaka Century Currency 15th - 18th

Footnote:

What Other Historians, Archaeologists & Academics Said About 'Malay Peninsula>Malayu> Malacca'? How Our ICEF-MAM Time Capsule Read It...

In Peninsula , the earliest Islamic document is a stone inscription at "Trengganu", it's somewhere between 1303-1387...it was the rise of Malacca that gave the real impact to the conversion of the Peninsula .still there has been much divergence of view regarding the dating of the city's foundation..

Hinduzation has been generally applied by scholars to the impact of Indian culture upon South East Asia..in spite of the fact that Buddhism played an important role in the movement, and Theravada Buddhism ultimately became the dominant faith of Burma and Arakan, the Thai states and Cambodia. Where Hinduism disappeared before Islam in the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia at the end of he European Middle Ages, Buddhism continued to receive the staunch allegiance of the countries it had conquered.

Relations between the western ports of South East Asia and India may go back well into the prehistoric period
. Traders and shippers from both sides were involved. So far as historical evidence goes, the first signs of states formed in the manner that has been described in the preceding section show that they were in existence by the end of the second century A.D. They appear ib three regions: (A) that of lower Mekong and its delta (B) north of Hue in modern Annam, and (C) the northern part of the Malay Peninsula

In the absence of archaeological and epigraphical materials earlier than the fifth century .Funan's capital city was for some time Vyadhapura, "the city of hunters", which lay near the hill Bab Phnom and the village of Banam in the present Cambolia province of Prei Veng. The Chinese say that it was 120 miles from the sea. Oc Eo , its port, on the maritime fringe of the Mekong delta bordering the Gulf of Siam. These were linked up with each other and with the sea by canals large enough to take sea-going ships, so that it was possible for Chinese travelers to talk about sailing across Funan on their way to the Malay Peninsula.

Oc Eo was a center of industry and trade; its site bears evidence of maritime relations with the Mediterranean. It was situated on what was in its day the great maritime highway between China and the West. The Funanese were of Malay race, and still in the tribal state at the dawn of history. The culture of Oc Eo itself is characterized by M. Malleret as half-indigenous, half foreign,; its foreign affinities, he says, were almost entirely with India!

Dr. O.W. Wolters observed that, until the end of the eleventh century , China was dependent upon foreign ships in her commerce with the Nanyang. Trade had to be carried on according to the "tributary" system laid down by he imperial court in its dealings with individual foreign states. It meant, trade with China was not open and fre to all merchants, Chinese or foreign. It was restricted to the "tribute" missions sent to the emperor by his vessal babariana rules, ro , at least, to the so-called vassals

From the seventh century until the leadership passed from the Palembang to Malayu (Jambi) at the end of the eleventh century, Palembang, with a well-governed port, and at the head of a loosely knit empire of trading ports, provided just the sort of entreport needed by merchants trading to and from China..

All this changed during the period of the Southern Sung (1127-1278) . Their dependence upon seaborne trade led to them to open the trade with the Nanyang to Chinese vessels. There was a great expansion of the Chinese merchant marine, and Chinese vessels began to trade directly with South East Asian ports.

During the Mongol period (1278-1367) things got worse for Srivijaya. By 1330 Chinese merchants were handling much of the freight of the Indian Ocean, while the north Sumantra harbous, Aru, Samudra, Lamuri and Perlac, were becoming independent centers of trade. Thus Palembang and Malayu ceased to be needed as entrepots by Asian traders, and Chinese reports significantly mention that San-fo-chi was using force to compel ships to visit its harbours.

In such a way, and for reasons outside the control of the maharajas, did Srivijaya system of commerce break down; its imperial power dwindled, and foreign accounts of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries speak of piracy!


Melaka Century Currency - Melakacc.com